Individuals Interviewed as Sources for Study of Basic Biomedical Sciences*§

* Titles are listed as of the time of the interview. In many cases a number of interviews were conducted with the same individual; 578 individuals are listed. HHMI stands for Howard Hughes Medical Institute. All references to Trinity College are to Trinity College, Cambridge, unless otherwise noted.

§ Interviews were conducted by Rogers Hollingsworth or jointly by him and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth except for fifteen interviews conducted by Jerald Hage.

# Recipient of Nobel, Lasker, Horwitz, Crafoord Prize and/or Copley Medal

‡ Ellen Jane Hollingsworth conducted these interviews.

** Interviews conducted outside the United States; 201 individuals were interviewed outside the United States.

Henry Abarbanel, Professor of Physics, Director of Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego and Research Physicist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Interviews at UCSD Faculty Club 5 February, 24 February 1998, 13 July 2001, 3 June 2005, 16 February 2007; interview at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia 25 and 26 May 2007, at UCSD 5 April 2010, 29 December 2010, 29 April 2011, 27 December 2011, 28 May 2012, 26 February 2013, 4 June 2013, 31 July 2013, 12 August 2014, by telephone 17 May 2015.

Elton D. Aberle, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office 10 November 2010.

Pnina Abir-Am, Scholar in Residence at Rockefeller Archive Center. Interview at Rockefeller Archive Center 10 May 2001.

Richard Adamson, Former Chief of Cancer Etiology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Interview in his office in Washington, DC 2 March 1995.

Michael Aiken, Provost, University of Pennsylvania. Interviews in his office and in his home 18 and 19 February 1993; telephone interview following his becoming Chancellor of the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana 13 October 2005, 30 November 2005.

Bruce Alberts, President, National Academy of Sciences. Former Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco; Former Professor of Biochemistry, Princeton University. Interview in his office in Washington, DC 20 November 1995.

Robert Alberty, Dean Emeritus of Science and Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, MIT. Interview in his office 2 May 1995.

Vince Allfrey, Emeritus Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office 22 February 2000.

Nancy Andreasen, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Iowa School of Medicine. Interview in San Diego 6 February 2013.

Fred Appelbaum, Director, Division of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle). Interview in his office 31 July 1995.

Sam Arbesman, Senior Scientist, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Interview in Kansas City, Missouri 12 November 2014.

Reginald M. Archibald, Professor Emeritus, Rockefeller University. Interview at Rockefeller University 2 February 2001.

Ruth Arnon, Professor, Weizmann Institute, Israel. Interview in San Diego, California 17 February 1998.

Brian Arthur, Professor, Santa Fe Institute. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands 8 October 2007.

Alan Attie, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at author’s home 15 November 1996. Interviews in his office 20 October 2005, 25 August 2012. Interview at Wisconsin Institute for Discovery 10 April 2015.

William Baker, Chairman of the Board of Trustees Emeritus, Rockefeller University, and former head of Bell Labs. Interview at Rockefeller University 30 January 2001; telephone interview 2 February 2001.

Evan Balaban, Fellow at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California. Former Student, Rockefeller University. Interviews at Neurosciences Institute 6 February 1996, 7 January 1998, 12 April 2000.

#David Baltimore, Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and former President of Rockefeller University. Interview in his MIT office 28 April 1995.

Cornelia Bargmann, Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview at her lab 1 June 2015.

#Derek H.E. Barton (Sir), Professor of Chemistry, Texas A and M University and Professor Emeritus, Imperial College, London. Interview at the Beckmann Center, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, 6 February 1998.

Steve Bass, Biological Scientist, Genentech Inc. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 26 August 1995.

Bob Bauer, Manager, Advanced Systems Development Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC). Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9 July 2001. Interviews at PARC 10 and 11 February, 4 and 5 May, 2003.

Alexander Bearn, Executive Director American Philosophical Society, and Life Trustee and former Professor, Rockefeller University. Interviews in his office, 15 February and 23 August 2000.

William Beers, Vice President for Facilities and Research Support, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 18 May 2001.

Arden L. Bement, Jr., Director of the National Science Foundation. Interview in his office in Arlington, Virginia, 17 April 2007.

Ruth Benca, Ph.D., Professor of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine. Interview in her office, 14 June 2004.

#Seymour Benzer, Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 30 March 1994; second interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 26 August 1995; third interview at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California, 17 March 1996; fourth interview in his office, 22 December 1999.

#Paul Berg, Professor of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine. Interview in his office, 6 May 2003.

Carl Bergstrom, Professor, Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 20 May 2012.

Howard Birnbaum, Professor of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois. Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9 July 2001.

#J. Michael Bishop, Professor of Microbiology, Director of Hooper Research Laboratory, University of California, San Francisco. Interview in his office, 10 August 1994.

Ragnar Björk, Professor of History, Södertörn University Sweden. Interview in San Diego April 2010. Interview in Sweden 31 August 2010.

#Günter Blobel, Professor at Rockefeller University and HHMI investigator. Interviews in his office 12 April 1995, 16 March 2001, 18 March 2001, 21 December 2004, 13 October 2006, 12 and 14 March 2007, 4 December 2008, 7 August 2012, 5 June 2015.

#Konrad Bloch, Higgins Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 25 April 1995.

Floyd Bloom, Professor (Emeritus) of Neuropharmacology, Scripps Research Institute. Interview in San Diego 28 April 2010.

#Baruch S. Blumberg, Professor, Fox Chase Cancer Center (Philadelphia). Interview at Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, 21 May 1984; interviews at the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton) 30 November 2008, 1 December 2008.

Derek Bok, President Emeritus, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 24 April 1995.

David Botstein, Professor, Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine. Former Professor of Biology, MIT. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 25 August 1995.

Fred Bowen, Former Executive Vice President, Rockefeller University. Interview at Rockefeller University, 14 March 2001.

Eugene Braumwald, Professor of Medicine, Chief of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Interview in his office, 27 April 1995.

#Sydney Brenner, Professor Salk Institute, and Former Director of Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK). Interview in La Jolla, California, 7 April 2003. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 8 October 2007.

Jan Breslow, Professor Rockefeller University. Interview in his laboratory, 14 April 2001. Second interview 18 April 2001.

Gerth Brieger, William H. Welch Professor of History of Medicine, Science, and Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interview in his office 21 July 1997.

Martin J. Bukovac, University Distinguished Professor, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan. Interview in Bonn, Germany, 9 July 1996.

Stephen K. Burley, Professor and Deputy to the President for Academic Affairs and HHMI Investigator, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 10 April 2001.

Beth Burnside, Vice Chancellor for Research, University of California, Berkeley. Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 9 July 2001.

Robert H. Burris, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 16 October 1995.

Martin Cadwallader, Associate Dean of Graduate School, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office 7, 8 March 1994.

Sean Carroll, Professor of Genetics, University of Wisconsin (Madison) and HHMI Investigator. Interview in his office, 5 August 2003.

Russell Carson, Chairman of the Board of Rockefeller University. Interview in his office 7 October 2014.

Anthony Cerami, Director Kenneth S. Warren Laboratories and Former Professor and Dean of Graduate Studies, Rockefeller University. Interviews at Rockefeller Archive Center, 12 March 2001, 10 May 2001.

Kenyon Chan, Chancellor of University of Washington Bothell. Interview at University of Washington, Bothell 14 February 2012.

Marsha Chandler, Senior Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs, University of California San Diego. Interview in her office, 9 March 1998. Other interviews in La Jolla, California, 7 December 2000, 12 July 2001.

Jean-Pierre Changeux, Director, Unité de neurobiologie moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in his office 25 April 2000. Professor, College de France and Institut Pasteur. Interviews in his office at University of California San Diego 6 and 13 March 2012, 12 April 2013, 6 June 2013.

Erwin Chargaff, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Columbia University. Interview at his home in New York City, 19 November 1993.

Dennis S. Charney, Professor and Dean of Research at Mount Sinai School of Medicine; former Chief of the Mood and Anxiety Disorder Research Program and the Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Interviews at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 10 and 11 October 2006, 16 July 2013.

Roger Chartier, Professor, College de France. Interview in San Diego 12 April 2013.

Monika Gruter Cheney, Executive Director, Gruter Institute for Law and Behavioral Research. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 20 May 2012.

John Chisholm. Software entrepreneur; Development Committee of MIT Corporation; Board Member Santa Fe Institute. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 22 May 2012.

Purnell Choppin, President Emeritus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and former Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview at Rockefeller University, 14 November 2000. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 18 April 2002.

Linda Claasen, Director of Archives, University of California San Diego Libraries. Interview in her office 8 June 2012.

Philippa Claude, Senior Scientist, Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin (Madison) and daughter of Albert Claude. Interview in her office, 13 March 2000. Interview in Madison, Wisconsin at author’s home, 17 October 2012.

Joel Cohen, Professor Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 8 February 2001.

Mildred Cohen, Professor Emeritus of Bio-physics, University of Pennsylvania. Interview in her office, 31 August 1993.

Melvin Cohn, Professor Emeritus, Salk Institute. Interview in his office, 5 December 2000.

William H. Colledge, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 9 March 2006.

Barry Coller, Professor, Rockefeller University and Physician-in-Chief, Rockefeller University Hospital. Interviews in his office, 18 October 2006, 4 December 2008, 13 August 2012, 13 March 2014.

Randall Collins, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of California, Riverside. Interview at Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden, 26–27 September 1996.

Amy Cook, Associate Professor, Department of Theatre and Drama, Indiana University. Interview in San Diego 6 March 2013.

Karen Cook, James B. Duke Professor, Duke University, Numerous Interviews, Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, May and June, 1996.

Andrew Crawford, Professor of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview at University of Wisconsin (Madison), 26 June 2000.

Angela Creager, Professor of History, Princeton University. Interview at Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, 12 August 1994.

#Francis Crick, President Emeritus and Distinguished Professor, Salk Institute; former scientist at University of Cambridge and at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Interview in his office in San Diego, 6 March 1996 and 11 March 1998. Interview at UCSD 6 June 2002.

E. David Cronon, Dean Emeritus of College of Letters and Sciences and Professor Emeritus of History, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at the University Club, University of Wisconsin, 17 March 1994.

Kathryn Crossin, Section head of Neurobiology Lab, Scripps Research Institute. Former postdoc at Rockefeller University. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, 19 January 1996.

James Crow, Professor Emeritus of Genetics, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office 16 December 1992.

Bruce Cunningham, Professor Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, California. Former Professor, Rockefeller University. Interviews at Neurosciences Institute, 7 February 1996 and 11 March 1998.

James E. Darnell, Jr., Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 10 April 1995. Other interviews in his office, 8 March 2001, 18 April 2001, 29 May 2001, 5 December 2008, 3 and 10 August 2012, 9 October 2014, 3 June 2015.

Robert Darnell, Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 25 January 2001.

Eric Davidson, Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology and former Associate Professor at Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 5 May 2000.

Lance Davis, Professor of Economics, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 28 March 1994.

Scott Davis, Associate Director, Division of Public Health, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center (Seattle). Interview in his office, 1 August 1995.

Joan Dawson, Associate Professor of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Biophysics, and Neuroscience, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview in Paul Lauterbur’s office, 24 October 2005.

Robert Day, Director, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Telephone interview, 20 July 1995.

Thomas C. Dalton, Special Assistant to the Chancellor, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California. Telephone interview, 18 November 2004; interview at author’s home in La Jolla, 13 June 2005.

Titia De Lange, Professor at Rockefeller University. Interviews in her office, 6 April 2001, 10 April 2001.

Manny Delbruck, Pasadena, California. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 26 August 1995.

Jesse Delia, Interim Provost, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview at Administration Building, 25 October 2005.

Hector F. DeLuca, Harry Steenbock Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interviews in his office, 12 December 1992, 17 March 1994. Interview at Madison Museum of Contemporary Art 12 May 2015.

Robert I. DeMars, Tracy Sonneborn Professor of Genetics, Departments of Genetics and Medical Genetics, University of Wisconsin (Madison), telephone interview, 14 December 1997. Interview at his home 10 August 2015 (while he was professor emeritus).

Jan de Vries, Professor of History and former Vice Provost of Academic Affairs, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007.

Carl Djerassi, Professor of Chemistry, Stanford University. Interview in Madison, Wisconsin, 18 May 1995. Second interview 7 October 1997 in Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison).

Paul Doty, Mallinckrodt Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 3 May 1995. Interview at his home in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 19 December 2002.

#Renato Dulbecco, Emeritus President and Distinguished Professor, Salk Institute; Former Professor California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office in San Diego, 23 February 1996. Second interview in his office, 22 May 2000.

Thom Dunning, Director, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview at the Center, 25 October 2005.

Freeman Dyson, Professor of Physics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Interview at Institute for Advanced Study, 30 November, 1 December 2008.

Walter Eckhart, Professor, Salk Institute, Interview in his laboratory, 23 May 2000.

David Edelman, Scientist, Neurosciences Institute, La Jolla, California. Interview in San Diego 21 April 2011, 18 June 2014.

Eric Edelman, artist. Interviews in San Diego and New York 3 and 27 June 2014, 21 July 2014, 12 October 2014.

#Gerald Edelman, Research Director, The Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California and former Professor and Dean, Rockefeller University. Interviews in Klosters, Switzerland, 17 January 1995, and at Neurosciences Institute, 13 January, 16 January, 19 January, 30 January, 14 February, 20 February, 22 February, 5 March, 16 March, 17 March 1996, 12 February 1998, 4 April, 11 April, 18 November 2000, 1 May, 26 May 2006. Telephone interview, 3 April 2001. In San Diego 8 January 2010, 3 March 2010, 19 June 2010, 21 April 2011, 27 December 2011, 15 June 2012, 12 June 2013.

Mark Ediger, Professor of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at O’Hare Airport, Chicago, 19 August, 1995.

John Edsall, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 4 May 1995.

Peter Eisinger, Professor of Political Science, New School. Interview in his office 12 December 2013.

#Gertrude Elion, Scientist Emeritus, The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park. Interview in her office. 17 March 1995.

Jeff Elman, Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science and Dean of Social Science, University of California San Diego. Interview in San Diego 20 March 2013.

Franklin Epstein, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Former Chief of Medicine, Beth Israel Hospital. Also former Professor of Medicine, Yale University. Interview in his office at Beth Israel Hospital, 26 April 1995.

Amitai Etzioni, University Professor, George Washington University. Interview in Washington, DC 20 April 2007.

Ronald Evans, Professor of Biology, Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA. Interview in his office 25 May 2010.

Tom Everhart, President, California Institute of Technology. Interview at the Athenaeum at the California Institute of Technology, 21 December 1994.

Marilyn G. Farquhar, Professor of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, and former Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in her office, 25 May 2000.

Eugenio Ferrari, Scientist, Genentech Inc. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 26 August 1995.

Gerald R. Fink, Director, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Professor of Biology, MIT. Interview in his office, 4 May 1995.

Edward A. Frieman, Professor of Physics and Former Head of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Interview in San Diego 2 January 2010.

Hans-Joachim Freund, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany. Interview at University of California San Diego Faculty Club, 20 February 1998.

Jock Friedly, Freelance Journalist. Telephone interview, 4 September 1994; second interview in Washington, DC 22 August 1995.

Jeffrey Friedman, Professor at Rockefeller University and HHMI Investigator. Interviews in his office, 16 March 2001, 18 April 2001.

Elaine Fuchs, Professor at Rockefeller University and HHMI Investigator. Interview in her office, 5 December 2008.

Richard Furlaud, Former Chair Board of Trustees Rockefeller University (1990–1998), Member of Board of Trustees (1976–1998), President of Rockefeller Council (2001). Interview at Rockefeller University, 17 May 2001.

Edward Furtek, Associate Vice Chancellor for Science and Technology Policy and Projects, University of California San Diego. Interview at his office, 9 July 2001.

#Daniel Carleton Gajdusek, Chief of the Laboratory for Slow Latent and Temperate Virus Infections and Chief of the Laboratory for Control Nervous System Studies at the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California, 11 March 1996.

Robert Galambos, Professor Emeritus of Neuroscience, University of California San Diego. Interview at UCSD Faculty Club, 13 March 1998.

Einar Gall, Director, Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California. Interviews at the Neurosciences Institute, 15 March, 1996, 7 January 1998, 6 February and 17 February 1998, 20 November 2014.

#Robert Gallo, Chief of the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Interview at University of Wisconsin Union, 13 March 1994. Interview in Bethesda, Maryland, 29 June 1994. Interview in his office 31 August 1994, 4 September 1994, 4 March 1995, 17 November 1995.

Joeseph A. Gally, Senior Scientist, Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California, and former graduate student at Rockefeller University. Multiple interviews at the Neurosciences Institute, during visits at the Institute in 1996, 1998, and 2000. Interview in La Jolla 21 April 2011.

Gordon Getty, distinguished international economist. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 21 May 2012.

#Walter Gilbert, Carl M. Loeb University Professor at Harvard University. Interview in Chicago, 14 October 1993. Interview in his office at Harvard University 26 April 1995.

Alex Glazer, Professor and Chair, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in his office, 4 January 1995.

Daniel S. Golden, former Administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Interview in La Jolla, California, 5 July 2002.

Oliver Goodenough, Professor, Vermont Law School and Berkman Center for Internet and Society, Harvard University. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 21 May 2012.

David Goodstein, Professor of Physics, and Vice Provost, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 29 March 1994.

#Joseph Goldstein, Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Interview at Rockefeller University, 13 March 2007.

Judith Goodstein, Registrar, Archivist, and Historian, California Institute of Technology. Interview in Archives at California Institute of Technology, 24 March 1995.

Neva Goodwin, Co Founder and Co-director of the Global Development and Environment Institute (G-DAE) at Tufts University and. Trustee of Rockefeller University. Interview in her home, in Cambridge, MA 16 February 2001.

Ellen Gordon, Dermatologist, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in Dermatology Clinic, University of Wisconsin, 27 September 1999.

Jane Gorchevsky, Archivist March of Dimes. Interview in White Plains, NY, 18, 28 May 2001.

Harry Gray, Professor of Chemistry and Director of the Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 22 December 1999.

Jerald Green, Physicist and businessman. Telephone interviews from Fonar Corporation in Melville, NY. 13, 14, 15 October 2003.

#Paul Greengard, Professor at Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 16 May 2001.

Ralph Greenspan, Professor of Biology, New York University (1996); Senior Fellow, Neurosciences Institute (1998). Interview at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California. Interviews 16 January 1996, 7 January 1998, 13 March 1998, 11 April 2000, 14 April 2000, 27 May 2005, 1 May 2006, 9 March 2010, 17 December 2010, 14 December 2011. Associate Director, Kavli Institute for Mind and Brain, University of California San Diego. Interviews at UCSD 22 February 2012, 21 June 2012, 18 April 2013, 17 May 2013, 31 July 2013, 6 and 20 September 2013, 3 October 2013, 10 May 2014, 30 June 2014, 25 November 2014.

Joel Grossman, Professor of Political Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interviews 18, 19 and 20 July 1997, 28 and 29 December 1999, 14 and 16 May 2015.

Guido Guidotti, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 19 December 2002.

#Roger Guillemin, Professor, Salk Institute. Interview in his office, May 8, 2000.

Robert Gunn, Professor and Chairman of Department of Physiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Interview in his office 13 May 1997.

Anne Gunther, Associate Dean for Budget Planning and Administration, the Chief Financial and Information Officer for the College of Letters and Science of the University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview by telephone, May 11, 2015.

Anoop Gupta, Distinguished Scientist at Microsoft Corporation. Interview at University of Washington, Bothell 14 February 2012.

Charles M. Haar, Former member Board of Trustees, Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor, Harvard Law School, Harvard University. Numerous interviews at Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, May–June, 1996.

Ed Hackett, Program Officer, U.S. National Science Foundation. Interviews at Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Stockholm, Sweden 26–27 September 1996.

Charles Halaby, Professor of Sociology, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 15 October 1996.

Peter A. Hall, Frank G. Thomson Professor of Government and Associate Dean, College of Letters and Sciences, Harvard University. Interview at Harvard University, 3 May 1995.

Robert Hanneman, Professor of Sociology, University of California Riverside. Interview in his office 20 April 2012.

W. Lee Hansen, Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at his home 24 May 2015.

John H. Hardiman, Licensing Associate, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), Madison, Wisconsin. Interview at University of Wisconsin (Madison), 17 November 1996.

#Stephen C. Harrison, Higgins Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and HHMI Investigator, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 18 December 2002.

Geoffrey H. Hartman, Sterling Professor, Yale University. Several interviews, Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, June 1996.

Colleen Hayes, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin. Interview at University of Wisconsin, 18 December 1997.

Bernadine Healy, Former Director of National Institutes of Health. Telephone interview, 4 September 1994.

John Heilbron, Professor Emeritus of History and History of Sciences, Former Vice Chancellor, University of California, Berkeley. Telephone interview, 5 January 1995.

Nathaniel Heintz, Professor of Rockefeller University and HHMI Investigator. Interview in his office, 28 March 2001.

Richard Herman, Chancellor, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview at Administration Building, 25 October 2005.

Ira Herskowitz, Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco. Interview in his home, 13 February 2003.

Tom Hines, Fellow, Getty Museum. Los Angeles. Interviews 8 and 9 March 2011. Interview in Los Angeles 17 March 2013.

Virginia Hinshaw, Dean of the Graduate School, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in her office, 11 November 1995.

Jules Hirsch, Professor, Rockefeller University. Interviews at Rockefeller University 14 March 2001, 9 August 2012.

Paul Holbo, Professor, Department of History, University of Oregon. Interview in San Diego 23 June 2012.

John H. Holland, Professor of Psychology and Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan and Santa Fe Institute. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007.

William Hollingsworth, Professor Emeritus of Medicine and former Associate Dean, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego. Telephone interview, 18 February 1995 and interview at his home in San Diego, 14 March 1996.

#Leroy Hood, Professor and Chairman, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, University of Washington (Seattle) and former Professor and Chair, Division of Biology at California Institute of Technology. Interview at his Seattle home, 29 July 1995. Telephone interview, 28 August 1996.

Norman Horowitz, Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 28 March 1994, 20 December 1994.

David Horvath, Associate Dean, Letters and Sciences, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 19 March 1998.

Rollin C. Hotchkiss, Professor Emeritus, Rockefeller University. Interview in Chicago, 14 October 1993. Telephone interview, 18 March 2000. Interview in his residence in Lenox, MA, 17 February 2001.

Arthur Hove, Assistant to the Chancellor (former), University of Wisconsin (Madison). Telephone interview, 25 February 1993. Second interview December 12, 1997, Library, University of Wisconsin (Madison).

Alice Huang, former Professor Harvard Medical School and Biologist at California Institute of Technology. Interview at her home, Pasadena, California. 22 December 1999.

Ruth Hubbard, Professor Emeritus of Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, Harvard University. Interview in her office, 17 December 2002.

#David Hubel, Professor Harvard Medical School. Interview in San Diego, California. 13 March 1998.

James Hudspeth, Professor Rockefeller University and HHMI investigator. Interview in his laboratory, 17 April 2001.

Sally Hughes, Professor of History of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Interview in her office, 10 August 1994.

Donald Humphrey, Associate Dean for Research in the Medical School and Professor of Physiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Interview in his office, 13 May 1997.

Neen Hunt, Executive Vice President, Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. Interview in her office in New York City, 26 March 2001.

Lee Huntsman, Associate Dean for Scientific Affairs, University of Washington School of Medicine. Interview in his office, 1 August 1995. Provost, University of Washington. Interview at University of Washington, Bothell 16 February 2012.

Hugh H. Iltis, Professor Emeritus of Botany, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 14 October 1995.

Marnie E. Imhoff, Vice President for Development, Rockefeller University. Multiple interviews in her office, January–June, 2001.

Thomas R. Insel, Director Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University, Atlanta. Interview in his office, 11 May 1997.

#Francois Jacob, Senior Scientist, Institut Pasteur. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 24 August 1995.

Stephanie Jed, Professor, Department of Literature, University of California San Diego. Interview in San Diego 19 June 2013.

Kristina Johnson, Dean, School of Engineering and Professor of Bio-Engineering, Duke University. Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 8 July 2001.

Fred Jones, Associate Professor, Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, and former student at Rockefeller University. Interview at Scripps Institute, 16 January 1996.

John Kaag, Associate Professor of Philosophy, University of Massachusetts Lowell. Interview in San Diego 1 March 2010, 21 April 2011.

#Dale Kaiser, Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 25 August 1995.

#Eric R. Kandel, Director of Center for Neurophysiology and HHMI Investigator, Columbia University School of Physicians and Surgeons, member of Board of Trustees, Rockefeller University. Interview at Columbia University, 19 April 2001.

William Kelley, Chief Executive Officer and Dean, School of Medicine, Robert G. Dunlop Professor of Medicine, Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Pennsylvania. Interview in his office, 18 February 1993.

Crosby Kemper, Kansas City Public Library Director of Research. Interview in Kansas City, Missouri 13 November 2014.

Donald Kennedy, Former President Stanford University, Bing Professor of Environmental Science. Interview in his office, 6 May 2003.

Clark Kerr, Emeritus President, University of California, Interview at his home in Berkeley, 12 August 1994.

Daniel Kevles, Professor of History and Provost, California Institute of Technology. Interview at Athenaeum and his office, 29 March 1994; second interview at California Institute of Technology, 27 December 1999.

Laura L. Kiessling, Professor of Chemistry and Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at the University of Wisconsin, 28 August 2006. Interview in her lab 27 April 2015.

Judith Kimble, Vilas Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison) and HHMI Investigator. Interview in her office, 15 August 2003.

Marc Kirschner, Professor of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School. Interview in his office, 1 May 1995.

Joseph Kirsner, Professor Emeritus of Medicine, University of Chicago, former Deputy Dean of Medical School, Head of Gastroenterology, and Chief of Staff, University of Chicago Medical School. Interview at his home, 7 May 1994.

Al Kirwin, Vice Provost for Research, University of Washington (Seattle). Interview in his office, 3 August 1995.

Irving Klotz, Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University. Interview at Northwestern University, 29 October 1993.

Jeremy Knowles, Amory Houghton Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and Molecular and Cellular Biology; former Dean of Faculty of Arts and Science, Harvard University. Trustee of Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Interview in his office, 17 December 2002.

Robert E. Kohler, Professor of History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania. Multiple interviews in Philadelphia, July and August 1993, 14 February 2000.

#Arthur Kornberg, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine (Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1959). Interview in his office, 5 May 2003.

Hans Kornberg (Sir), University Professor, Boston University. 1975–1995 holder of Dunn Chair in Biochemistry, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office at Boston University, 16 February 2001.

Dan Koshland, Professor of Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Former Editor of Science. Interview in his Berkeley office, 5 January 1995.

Morgan Kousser, Professor of Social Science, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 24 March 1995.

David Krakauer, Director, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Interview in his office 29 August 2013, 29 October 2014, 22 April 2015, 7 May 2015, 26 June 2015.

#Edwin Krebs, Professor of Biochemistry and HHMI Investigator, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle. Interview in his office, 2 August 1995.

Julius Krevans, Former Dean, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Telephone interview, 8 August 1994.

Gilbert Kukielka, Research Fellow in Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interview at his home 19 July 1997.

John Kuryian, Professor Rockefeller University and HHMI Investigator, Interview in his laboratory, 20 April 2001. Telephone interview, 5 July 2001.

Peter Lange, Associate Provost (and later, Provost), Duke University. Interview in Durham, North Carolina, 16 March 1995, 20 September 2000.

Steve Langman, Scientist at Salk Institute. Interview at University of California San Diego. 6 March 1998.

Todd LaPorte, Professor of Political Science, University of California Berkeley. Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 8 July 2001.

Henry Lardy, Professor of Biochemistry and Enzyme Institute, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 28 December 1992.

#Paul Lauterbur, Professor of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview in his office, 24 October 2005.

Richard H. Leazer, Managing Director, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), Madison, Wisconsin. Interview at University of Wisconsin (Madison), 17 November 1996.

#Joshua Lederberg, President Emeritus, Rockefeller University. Former Chair, Medical Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine and former Professor of Genetics, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interviews at Rockefeller University, 16 September 1993, 13 April 1995; telephone interview, 27 August 1999; interviews in his office 25 January 2001, 4 April 2001.

Richard Lerner, President of Scripps Research Institute, San Diego; Professor and Founding Director, Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies. Interviews in his office, 12 March 1996, 12 March 1998, 6 October 2016.

Derek LeRoith, Professor of Medicine and Endocrinology and Chair, Division of Metabolic Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and former Diabetes Branch Chief, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Interviews at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 10, 11 October 2006.

#Rita Levi-Montalcini, Professor Emeritus of Biology, Washington University (St. Louis). Interview at her home in Rome, Italy, 15 June 1995.

Simon A. Levin, Professor of Biology, Princeton University. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007.

#Arnold Levine, President Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 14 May 2001.

Myron Levine, Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan Medical School. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 24 August 1995.

#Edward B. Lewis, Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology. Interviews at Athenaeum and his office, 25 March 1994, 21 December 1994.

Richard C. Lewontin. Alexander Agassiz Research Professor, Harvard University. Interview in his office 18 December 2002. Interview at National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 5 December 2005.

Albert Libchaber, Professor Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 11 May 2001.

Katja Lindenberg, Professor and Former Chair, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego. Interviews at UCSD Faculty Club, 5 February and 24 February 1998.

#William N. Lipscomb, Jr. Professor Emeritus of Chemistry, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 16 December 2002.

Robert Litan, Senior Scientist, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation & Fellow of Brookings Institution. Interview in Kansas City 15 February 2010.

Alice Lustig, Senior Vice President Rockefeller University. Interview in her office 29 May 2001.

Kenneth G. Lutz, Controller, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), Madison, Wisconsin. Telephone interview, 27 July 2004.

David Lyons, Former Vice-President, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office 30 January 2001.

Eduardo R. Macagno, Dean of Division of Life Sciences, University of California San Diego. Interview in his office, 20 May 2003.

#Roderick MacKinnon, Professor Rockefeller University and HHMI Investigator. Interview in his office, 1 March 2001.

Kevin McCabe, Professor, Center for the Study of Neuroeconomics, George Mason University. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 22 May 2012.

Boris Magasanik, Jacques Monod Professor Emeritus of Biology at MIT, Former Chairman, Department of Biology, MIT. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 26 August 1995.

Tom Maniatis, Thomas H. Lee Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University. Interviews in his office, 19 December 2002, 21 July 2003.

Laurence J. Marton, Former Professor at University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, and Former Dean, School of Medicine, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interviews in his Madison office, 2 August 1994, 13 October 1995.

Gerald Marwell, Professor of Sociology and former Departmental Chair and Editor of American Sociological Review. Multiple interviews at University of Wisconsin, 1995-2003.

Charles Massey, former Senior Vice President, National Foundation. Telephone interview 29 October 2001.

Michael Mauboussin, Managing Director and Head of Global Financial Strategies at Credit Suisse. Interview at Wisconsin Institute for Discovery13 May 2015.

Maclyn McCarty, Professor Emeritus and Vice President Emeritus, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 6 February 2001.

Tom McGill, Professor of Physics, California Institute of Technology. April 10, 2003.

Peggy Means, Chief Operating Officer, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle)Douglas A. Melton, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and HHMI Investigator, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 20 December 2002.

#Bruce Merrifield, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Emeritus Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office 11 February 2000.

Robert Merton, University Professor, Columbia University. Interview at Russell Sage Foundation, New York City, 19 April 1995.

Matthew Meselson, Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of the Natural Sciences, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University. Interview in Los Angeles, 8 February 2003.

Robert Metzenberg, Bascom Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Chemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 28 February 1995.

George Miklos, Senior Fellow, Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, California. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, 16 January 1996.

Carol Moberg, Senior Scientist, Rockefeller University. Interview in her office, 11 February 2000. Telephone interview, 15 March 2000.

Peter Model, Professor of Rockefeller University. Interviews at Rockefeller University, 26 March 2001, 8 May 2001.

Ian Molineux, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Texas (Austin). Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 25 August 1995.

Maurice Montal, Professor of Biology, University of California San Diego. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, 7 January 1998.

Geoffrey Montgomery, Special Assistant to the President, Rockefeller University. Interviews at Rockefeller University, 13 April 1995 and 14 July 1997.

Neil Morgan, Columnist, San Diego Union Tribune. In his office, 19 May 2000.

Yasuyuki Motoyama, Senior Researcher, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Interview in Kansas City 14 November 2014.

#Vernon Mountcastle, Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University. Interview 7 March 1995. Second interview 11 August 2000.

Karl Müller, Director of Wiener Institut für Sozialwissenschaftliche Dokumentation und Methodik (WISDOM), Vienna, Austria. Multiple interviews in Vienna, 25–28 March 2005, multiple interviews in Vienna and in Madison Wisconsin in 2007 and 2008, 21 October 2010, 21 January 2011, 4 February 2011, 23 July 2011, 19 April 2012, 19 July 2014.

Tom Muir, Head of Laboratory of Synthetic Protein Chemistry, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 28 February 2001.

David Nanney, Professor Emeritus of Ecology, Ethology and Evolution, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview in his office, 26 October 2005.

#Dan Nathans, Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interview in his office 21 July 1997.

William Neaves, Chief Executive Officer, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri. Interview in his office, 22 March 2001.

Paul Neiman, Director, Division of Basic Sciences and Program in Molecular Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle). Interview in his office, 31 July 1995.

Richard Nelson, Professor of Economics and Political Science, Columbia University. Interview at Columbia University, 23 February 2001.

Hans Neurath, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Washington School of Medicine. Interview in his office, 3 August 1995.

Rodney Nichols, Executive Director New York Academy of Science and former Executive Vice-President, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 26 February 2001.

Erling Norrby, Professor of Medicine and Former Dean of The Karolinska Institute (Stockholm) and Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Interviews at Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, 26 February 1996; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden 26–27 September 1996, 18 September 2001; Neurosciences Institute, 3 February 1998. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007. Interviews in Stockholm, 3 September 2010, 25 February 2011, 11 August 2011. Interview in La Jolla, California 24 March 2012, 22 March 2013, 18 November 2013, 2 December 2014.

#Paul Nurse, President, Rockefeller University. Interviews in his office, 23 December 2004, 15 October 2006, 13 March 2007, 5 December 2008.

Alex Ommaya, Veterans Administration Hospital System Office of Translational Research. Telephone interview, 14 November 2006.

Leslie Orgel, Professor, Salk Institute of Biological Studies. Interview in his office, 18 May 2000.

Ray Owen, Professor of Biology, California Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 22 December 1994.

#George Palade, Dean, Medical School University of California San Diego. Also former Professor at Yale University and Rockefeller University. Interviews in his office in San Diego, 7 March 1996, 13 March 1998.

Stanley Payne, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Interview in Madison 15 January 2013, 30 April 2015.

David Pendlebury, Editor of The Scientist. Interview at Institute of Scientific Information (Philadelphia), in his office, 31 August 1993.

Joseph Perpich, Vice President for Grants and Special Projects, HHMI, Chevy Chase, Maryland. Interview in his office, 6 March 1995.

Robert Petersdorf, Former Chair Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Former Dean of School of Medicine, University of California San Diego; Former President of American Association of Medical Colleges. Interview at his office in Veterans Hospital, Seattle, Washington, 2 August 1995.

Harry L. Peterson, Vice Chancellor, University of Minnesota. Telephone interview, 17 March 1994.

Marnie Pillsbury, Trustee of Rockefeller University. Interview in her office at Rockefeller Center, 30 May 2001.

John Polanyi, Professor, University of Toronto. Interview at the Center for Advanced Cultural Studies, Essen, Germany, 5 September 2001.

Van Potter, Hilldale Professor Emeritus of Oncology, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interviews at McArdle Cancer Laboratory, University of Wisconsin (Madison), 26 November 1993, 13 April 1995.

Peter Preuss, President of the Preuss Foundation and Regent of the University of California. Interview at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 8 July 2001.

#Mark Ptashne, Professor, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and former Professor and Chair, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harvard University. Interview in his New York City apartment, 24 May 2001.

Beverly Purnell, Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie in Göttingen, Germany, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Pennsylvania State University. Interview in Bonn, Germany, 9 July 1996.

Jeffrey W. Purnell, Max-Planck-Institute für biophysikalische Chemie in Göttingen, Germany, and Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, Interview in Bonn, Germany, 9 July 1996.

Charles Ragin, Professor of Sociology, Northwestern University. Interview in his office, 11 March 1995.

Ronald Raines, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at author’s home 15 November 1996.

Bryan Z. Renk, Licensing Associate, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), Madison, Wisconsin. Interview at University of Wisconsin (Madison), 17 November 1996.

Alex Rich, William Thompson Sedgewick Professor of Biology, MIT. Interview in his office, 28 April 1995.

George Rieke, Associate Professor Rockefeller University. Interview 25 April 2001.

Henry E. Riggs, President, Keck Graduate Institute, Claremont, California. Interview at Keck, 21 April 2003.

Hans Ris, Professor of Zoology, University of Wisconsin (Madison) and former postdoc at Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 15 March 2000.

Gene Robinson, Professor of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview in his office, 26 October 2005.

Nancy Rockafeller, Professor of History of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Interview in her office, 10 August 1994.

David Rockefeller. Interview in his office, New York 24 July 1997.

#Robert Roeder, Professor at Rockefeller University. Interviews at Rockefeller University 24 April 2001, 8 May 2001.

John Ross, Former Chair, Departments of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, 18 February 1998.

Sheldon Rothblatt, Director of the Center for Studies of Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in his office, 5 January 1995.

Henry Rosovsky, Former Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University. Telephone interview, 2 May 1995.

#Harry Rubin, Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in his office, 4 January 1995.

Martin Rudwick, Geologist and Professor of History, University of California San Diego. Interview at University of California San Diego Faculty Club, 10 February 1998.

Marjorie Russell, Associate Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview at Rockefeller University 8 May 2001.

William Rutter, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco. Telephone interview, 11 August 1994.

David Sabatini, Professor and Chair of Department of Cell Biology, New York University Medical School. Interview at Rockefeller University, 28 March 2001.

Darrell Salk, Biomedical Scientist. Interview in Seattle, Washington 18 September 1996. Interviews in San Diego, 11 April 2000, 4 June 2001.

Peter L. Salk, President and Scientific Director, The Jonas Salk Legacy Foundation. Interview at his home, 11 June 2012.

Rudi Schmidt, Professor Emeritus of Medicine, former Dean of University of California Medical School, San Francisco. Interview in his office, 10 August 1994.

John Karl Scholz, Dean of the College of Letters & Science at the University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office 15 June 2015.

Carl Schramm, President of the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Interviews in Kansas City 14 February 2010, 6 December 2010, 19 September 2011.

Stuart Schreiber, Morris Loeb Professor and Chairman of Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Associate Member, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology; Co-Director of the Bauer Center for Genomics Research; Director of Harvard Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology. Member of Graduate Programs in Biophysics (Harvard) and Immunology (Harvard Medical School); HHMI Investigator. Interview in his office, 16 December 2002.

David Schubert, Professor, Salk Institute of Biological Studies. Interview in his office, 20 May 2000, 13 June 2012.

Brad Schwartz, Professor of Biochemistry, Regional Dean, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interviews in his office, 24, 25, 26 October 2005. Interview in Madison, Wisconsin, 18 September 2006.

John Searle, Professor of Biological Philosophy, University of California, Berkeley. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, 17 March 1996.

Fred Seitz, President Emeritus of Rockefeller University. Former President, National Academy of Sciences and former Professor of Physics, University of Illinois (Champaign-Urbana). Interviews in his office in New York, 15 April 1995, 24 February 2000, 4 May 2001.

Irving Shain, Former Vice Chancellor and Chancellor, University of Wisconsin (Madison), and Former Provost, University of Washington (Seattle). Telephone interview, 24 July 1995. Second Interview in his Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation office, 20 December 1997.

Bassam Z. Shakhashiri, Professor of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 26 February 2004, at Faculty Club 11 June 2015.

Donna Shalala, Chancellor University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at Faculty Club of University of Wisconsin. 5 March 1991.

Steven Shapin, Professor of Sociology of Science, University of California San Diego. Interview in his home 11 March 1996. Second interview, UCSD Faculty Club, 6 February 1998.

Lucy Shapiro, Professor and Chair, Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Numerous Interviews, Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, May and June, 1996; interview in her Stanford office, 6 May 2003.

#Philip Sharp, Chair and Professor of Biology, and former Director of Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Interview in his office, 3 May 1995.

Philip Siekevitz, Professor Emeritus of Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 11 February 2000.

John Simpson, Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Washington (Seattle). Telephone interview, 5 September 1996, interview in his office, 19 September 1996.

Henry Small, Editor, The Scientist. Interview at Institute of Scientific Information (Philadelphia) in his office 31 August 1993.

#Hamilton O. Smith, Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interview in his office 21 July 1997.

Lloyd (Holly) Smith, Professor Emeritus of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. Interview in his office, 10 August 1994, telephone interview, 17 February 1995.

#Oliver Smithies, Professor of Molecular Genetics and Pathology, University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill). Former President of Genetics Society of America. Interview in his office in Chapel Hill, 30 March 1996.

#Solomon Snyder, Professor and Director of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University. Interview in his office 18 July 1997.

David Sonneborn, Professor of Zoology, University of Wisconsin. Interview in his office, 18 December 1997. Second interview by telephone, 23 December 1997.

Aage Sorenson, Professor of Sociology, Harvard University. Interview at Harvard, 29 April 1995.

Didier Sornette, Professor of Geophysics, University of California Los Angeles and Professor of Entrepreneurial Risks, ETH Zurich. Interview at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 25 May 2007.

Nicholas Spitzer, Professor, Director of Biological Sciences, University of California San Diego. Interview in San Diego 20 March 2013.

Dane Stangler, Executive Vice President for Research and Policy, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Interviews 3 March 2011, 7 and 19 September 2011. Interviews in San Diego 31 May 2012, 2 and 3 April 2013. Interview in Kansas City Missouri 11 November 2015.

Gunter Stent, Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley. First interview, at his home in Berkeley, California, 11 August 1994; Second interview, Klosters, Switzerland, 16 January 1995; Third interview, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 24 August 1995.

Steve J. Stern, Professor of History and former Vice Provost for Faculty and Staff, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview 9 April 2015.

Charles Stevens, Professor, Salk Institute. Interview in his office, 13 December 2000.

Wolfgang Streeck, Director of Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung. In Köln, 7 July 1996, 19 April 2004, 14 May 2004. Interview in New York City 23 March 2014.

Sidney Strickland, Professor and Dean of Graduate Studies, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 2 April 2001.

#Jack Strominger, Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 16 December 2002.

David Tarin, Professor of Pathology; Director, UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego. Interviews in his office at UCSD, 22 June, 3 July 2001, 19 April 2005. Former Director, Cancer Institute, University of California San Diego School of Medicine. Interview in his office 13 August 2013.

Louise Taylor, Special Assistant to the Vice Chancellor, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in her office, 5 January 1995.

#Howard Temin, Professor in McArdle Cancer Laboratory, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview at McArdle Cancer Laboratory, 26 November 1993.

Marc Tessier-Lavigne, President of Rockefeller University. Interview in his office 13 October 2014.

Esther Thelan, Professor of Psychology, Indiana University. Interview at Neurosciences Institute, 7 January 1998. Second interview 28 January 1998.

George Thorn, Levine Professor Emeritus, Harvard Medical School; Former Physician-in-chief, Peter Brent Brigham Hospital. Interview in his home, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 25 April 1995.

Alexander Tomasz, Professor Rockefeller University. Interview at Rockefeller University, 8 February 2001.

Andrew W. Torrance, Professor, University of Kansas School of Law. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 23 May 2012.

Daniel Tosteson, Caroline Shields Walker Professor of Physiology, President, Harvard Medical Center; Dean, Faculty of Medicine. Interview in his office, Harvard Medical School, 27 April 1995.

Martin Trow, Professor of Sociology and former Director of the Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California, Berkeley. Interview in Berkeley, 15 August 1994, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, 27 September 1996.

Eskil Ullberg, Professor, Department of Economics, George Mason University. Interview at Gruter Institute Conference on Innovation, Economic Growth and Human Behavior, Squaw Valley, California, 23 May 2012.

Jan M. Vansina, Professor of History and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 6 December 1993.

#Harold Varmus, Director of the National Institutes of Health and former Professor at University of California, San Francisco. Interview in his office, Bethesda, Maryland, 6 March 1995.

#Bert Vogelstein, Professor of Oncology and HHMI investigator, Johns Hopkins University. Interview in his office 18 July 1997.

Mitchell Waldrop, Physicist and Science Writer, Science. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 8 October 2007.

Graham Walker, Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 25 August 1995.

Doug Wallace, Woodruff Professor of Molecular Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Interview at his office 13 May 1997.

Ed Wallach, Professor and Former Chairman, Department of Gynecology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. Interview in his office 18 July 1997.

Stephen Warren, Timmie Professor of Biochemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Interview at his office 11 May 1997.

#James D. Watson, Director, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York. Interview at Cold Spring Harbor, 24 August 1995, and at Neurosciences Institute, San Diego, 20 February 1996.

Duncan Watts, Professor of Sociology, Columbia University. Interview at Columbia University, 16 October 2006.

Bernard Weisblum, Professor of Pharmacology, University of Wisconsin (Madison) Medical School. Interviews at author’s home, 18 December 1999, 30 June 2004.

Burton H. Weisbrod, Professor Medical/Health Economics, Northwestern University. Interview in La Jolla, California, 14 December 2000.

Geoffrey West, President, Santa Fe Institute. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 8 October 2007.

John White, Head of Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Professor of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 16 July 2003. Former senior staff scientist, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

#Torsten N. Wiesel, President, Rockefeller University. Interviews in his office, 14 April 1995, 14 July 1997, 7 February 2001, 4 May 2001, 25 May 2001, 24 March 2014, 2 June 2015.

#Don C. Wiley, John L. Loeb Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Harvard University. Telephone interview, 4 November 1999.

John Wiley, Dean of Graduate School, University of Wisconsin (Madison). Interview in his office, 7 March 1994.

#Edward O. Wilson, Pellegrino University Professor and Curator of Entomology, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Interviews in his office, 4 May 1995, 17 December 2002.

Victor Wilson, Professor Emeritus, Rockefeller University. Interviews in his office, 2 February 2001, 10 May 2001.

#Carl Woese, Professor of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview in his office, 26 October 2005.

Alan Wood, Professor, School of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, University of Washington Bothell. Interview at University of Washington, Bothell 16 February 2012.

Chris Wood, neuroscientist and Vice President, Santa Fe Institute. Interview in his office, 2 February 2007. Interview at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 25 May, 2007.

Woody Wright, Professor of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Interview in Madison, Wisconsin at author’s home, 30 December 1995.

Michael Young, President, University of Washington. Interview at University of Washington, Bothell 15 February 2012.

Norton Zinder, John D. Rockefeller Professor, Rockefeller University. Interview in his office, 18 April 1995; Second interview at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 24 August 1995. Other interviews at Rockefeller University, 11 February 2000, 25 January 2001, 28 February 2001, 30 April 2001.

Harriet Zuckerman, Professor of Sociology, Columbia University and Executive Vice President, Andrew Mellon Foundation. Interview in her office, New York, 18 November 1993, 15 May 2001.

Charles Zukoski, Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. Interview at Administration Building, 25 October 2005.

#Aaron Klug, former Director, Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), Cambridge UK, President of the Royal Society, Honorary Fellow of Trinity College. Telephone interview, 24 May 1999. Interview in his office at LMB, 11 July 2000. Interview at Trinity College, Cambridge, 3 April 2002.**

#Alan Battersby (Sir), Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 20 March 2002.**

#Andrew Huxley (Sir). Emeritus Professor of Physiology, University College, London, Former Master of Trinity College, University of Cambridge, and former President of the Royal Society. Interview in his room in Trinity College, 11 July 2000. Interviews at Trinity College, 20 January and 4 March 2002 and 1 February 2006.**

#John Gurdon, John Humphrey Plummer Professor of Cell Biology; Chairman, Wellcome CRC Institute, University of Cambridge. Interview at Wellcome CRC Institute, 9 June 1999.**

#John Sulston (Sir). Former Director Sanger Institute (Hixton, UK) and former senior scientist, Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Cambridge, UK). Interview at St. John’s College (Cambridge), 7 April 2006.**

#Martin Evans, Professor and Director of School of Biosciences, University of Cardiff, UK. Telephone interview, 22 April 2002.**

#Max Perutz, former Director, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. Interview at Peterhouse College 15 March 1997; interview at Laboratory of Molecular Biology 11 June 1999.**

#Michael Berridge, Senior Research Fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge and Head of Cell Signalling Programme, Babraham Institute (UK). Interviews at Trinity College, 9 June 1999, 24 January 2002. interview at Babraham Institute, 29 March 2002.**

#Erwin Neher, Director of Department of Membrane Biophysics, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Interview in his office, 15 April 2004.**

#Fred Sanger, Emeritus Staff, Laboratory for Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Interview at Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge, 7 June 1999.**

#Kurt Wüthrich, Professor of Bio-physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) (Switzerland). Interview in his office, 12 December 1994.**

#Manfred Eigen, Professor, Max-Planck Institut für Biophysikalishe Chemie, Göttingen, Germany. Interview in Klosters, Switzerland, 16 January 1995.**

#Robert G. Edwards, Professor Emeritus of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview at Churchill College, Cambridge, 21 February 2006.**

#Ryoji Noyori, President of RIKEN, Tokyo, Japan. Interview in his Tokyo office, 29 October 2009.**

#Satoshi Ōmura, Professor and former President of the Kitasato Institute and Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan. Interview in Tokyo, 22 October 2009.**

#Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Professor, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 4 November 2009.**

#Tim Hunt, Head of the Cell Cycle Control Laboratory at Cancer Research UK. Interview at his home north of London, 13 May 2006.**

#Toshio Hirano, Professor and Dean of the Medical School of Osaka University, Professor in the Laboratory of Developmental Immunology, and Group Director of the Laboratory for Cytokine Signaling, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 4 November 2009.**

A. Alavi, Lecturer in Theoretical Chemistry and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College 22 April 2002.**

A. J. Munro, Master of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Interview at Master’s Lodge, 16 April 2002.**

A.G. Weeds, Fellow at Trinity College and researcher at Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Interview at Trinity College, Cambridge, 22 April 2002.**

Aant Elzinga, Professor in Theory of Science, University of Göteborg, Sweden. Interview at Swedish Collegium for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, 26 September 2002.**

Alan Cuthburt, Emeritus Sheild Professor of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his lab, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, 16 October 2002.

Alec Broers (Sir). Professor and Vice-Chancellor, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office 23 April 2002.**

Anders Bárány, Professor and Secretary, Nobel Committee for Physics. Interview at Nobel Museum Stockholm, 24 October 2002.**

André Belanger, Professor of Political Science, University of Montreal. Interview in Montreal, Canada at the residence of Professor Arnaud Sales, 2 October 2005.**

Andreja Kocijančič, Rektor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Interviews at her residence, 21 May, 2 June 2007.**

Andrew Wyllie, Professor of Pathology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 18 October 2002.

Anne Marie Moulin, Medical doctor and historian of science at INSERM Unit 158, Hôpital Necker, Paris. Interviews in Paris, 2 August 1996 and at Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden 27 September 1996.**

Anne McLaren, Senior Staff Member, Gurdon Wellcome/CRUK Institute, University of Cambridge. Interview in her office, 6 March 2006.**

Anton Zeilinger, Ordentlicher Universitätsprofessor of Experimental Physics, University of Vienna and Co-director, Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, IQOQI, Austrian Academy of Sciences. Interview 25 March 2005. Interview over dinner in Vienna, 3 April 2006.**

Arnaud Sales, Professor and Chairperson, Department of Sociology, University of Montreal. Interview in Montreal, Canada at his residence, 30 September, 1, 2 October 2005.**

Arnold Burgen, former Sheild Professor of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge; former Director National Institute of Medical Research. Interview in his home, 17 October 2002.‡

Artur Benz, Professor of Administrative Sciences, Konstanz University, Germany, 30 November 1994.**

Charles Edquist, Professor, Holder of Ruben Raising Chair, Center for Innovation and Creativity, Lund University. Interview in Sweden 9 September 2010.**

Christel Lane, Reader, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences. Interviews at University of Cambridge, 5 November, 1998, 11 July 2000.**

Christian Griesinger, Director, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Interview in his office, 14 April 2004.**

Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Director, Max Plank Institute for Developmental Biology in Tübingen. Interview in Berlin, 11 January 2011.**

Christopher Booth (Sir), Royal College of Physicians. Interview in his office, London, 3 May 1997.**

Christopher Morley, Professor of Engineering, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 10 March 2002.**

Colin Hughes, Lecturer in Pathology, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 27 January 2002.**

D. Keith Peters (Sir), Regius Professor of Physic, Dean of Clinical School of Medicine, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 11 April 2002.**

Daniel Zagury, Professor, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris. Interview in Bethesda, Maryland at NIH, 21 and 22 August 1995.**

David King (Sir), Chief Science Officer to Her Majesty’s Government, and former Professor (and Head of Department) of Chemistry, University of Cambridge. Interview at St. John’s College (Cambridge), 2 February 2006.**

David Soskice, Director of Science Unit. Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin. Multiple interviews at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, April–July, 1996, June 1998.**

David Williams (Sir), former Vice Chancellor, University of Cambridge. Interview at Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge. 8 June 1999.**

Dieter Oesterhelt, Professor and Director of Department of Membrane Biochemistry, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried (Munich), Germany. Interview at Martinsried, 20 May 2004.**

Douglas A. Melton, Professor of Molecular and Cellular Biology and HHMI Investigator, Harvard University. Interview in his office, 20 December 2002.**

Dr. Knut Consemüller, Director Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development. Interview at Austrian Academy of Sciences, 30 March 2006.**

E. W. Handley, Professor Emeritus of Classics, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 27 January 2002.**

E.M. (Tilli) Tansey, Historian of Medicine, Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. Interview in her office, London, 3 May 1997.**

Edgar Grande, Professor of Political Science, Technical University of Munich. Interview at Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung in Köln, Germany, 7 July 1996. Interviews at Technical University of Munich, 9 and 11 May 2004. Professor of Comparative Politics, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. Interview in Munich 31 January 2011.**

Elie Wolmann, former member of the Direction of Institut Pasteur. Interview in the office of the Pasteur Archives. 15 May 1998.**

Elisabeth Leedham-Green, Archivist, University of Cambridge Library, Cambridge, UK 2 November 1998, 6 November 1998, 10 June 1999.**

Ellen Immergut, Professor of Comparative Politics, Humboldt University, Berlin. Interview in Berlin 14 January 2011.**

Enid A.D. MacRobbie, Professor of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge. Interview in her office. 11 June 1999.**

Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker, President Deutsche Forschungsgemainschaft. Interview in Max Planck Institute for Study of Societies, Köln, Germany, 1997. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002.**

Eva-Maria Diehl, Public Relations Officer, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried (Munich), Germany. Interview in Martinsried, 10 May 2004.**

Frank Schweitzer, Professor of Systems Design, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and Editor-in-Chief of the European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems and Editor-in-Chief of Advances in Complex Systems. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007.**

Fritz Melchers, Director, Basel Institute of Immunology (Switzerland). Interviews in his office, 15 December 1994, 10 January 1995.**

Fritz Sharpf, Director, Max Planck Institute for Social Science Research (Cologne), Konstanz University (Germany), 23 November 1994.**

Fujio Murakami, Dean of the Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences (FBS), Professor of Neuroscience, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 2 November 2009.**

Gabriel Horn, Emeritus Professor of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Interview at Sidney Sussex College, 7 March 2006.‡

Georg Schütte, Secretary General Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Interview in Bonn, 29 March 2004.**

George Cohen, Former Director, Unité de biochimie cellulaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, and Former Director of Laboratoire d’ Enzymologie, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Interviews in his office 9 March 2000, 9 June 2000.**

George Reid, Emeritus Senior Bursar, St. John’s College, Cambridge. Interview at St. John’s College, 7 March 2006.**

Gerard Lehmbruch, Professor of Administrative Science, Konstanz University (Germany), 15 November 1994, 22 November 1994, 29 November 1994.**

Gillian Evans, Lecturer in Department of History, University of Cambridge. Interview at University of Cambridge, 18 February 2002.**

Graeme W. Barker, Disney Professor of Archaeology and Director of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge. Multiple interviews at St. John’s College (Cambridge) during Lent Term 2006.**

Greg Winter, Co-Division Leader, Medical Research Council Laboratory, Cambridge, UK and Associate Director, Center for Protein Engineering, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 17 March 2002.**

Guy Bordenave, Director, Unité d’Immunophysiologie moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in laboratory, 10 May 2000.**

H. Keith Moffatt, Professor of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 22 April 2002.**

Haim Harari, Professor, Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel). Interview at Schoss Ringberg in Bavaria, 18 April 2002.**

Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Director of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. Interview in his office, 29 June 1998.**

Hans-Wolfgang Presber, Vice President for Medicine, Humboldt University. Interview in his office, 25 June 1998.**

Hardy Hanappi, Professor of Economics, Vienna University of Technology. Interview 10 April 2005.**

Harmke Kamminga, Director, Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Interview in her office 14 March 1997.**

Helga Nowotny, Professor ETH-Zurich. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002.**

Helmut Blocker, Head of Department, Genome Research, Protein Design, Gesellschaft fur Biotechnologische Forschung mbH in Braunschweig. Interview in Klosters, Switzerland, 17 January 1995.**

Helmuth Trischler, Professor, Technical University of Munich and Director of Research Division, Deutsches Historichen Museum. Interviews in his office, 11 May 2004, 17 January 2011.**

Henri Buc, Director, Unité de physicochimie des macromolécules biologiques, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in his office 6 March 2000.**

Henry Chadwick (Sir), Former Master Peterhouse College, University of Cambridge. Former Regius Professor, University of Oxford; former Regius Professor, University of Cambridge. Many interviews at Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, June 1994; interview at his home in Oxford, 13 April 1997.**

Herbert Jäckle, Professor and Director of Department of Molecular Development Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Interview in his office, 14 April 2004.**

Horace Barlow. Emeritus Professor of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 10 April 2002.**

Horst Sund, Professor of Biology and Biochemistry, Konstanz University (Germany), 6 December 1994.**

Hubert Markl, President, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften, Munich, Germany, Interview in Bonn, Germany, 9 July 1996; second interview in his office in Munich, 15 June 1998. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002.**

Ian M. Glynn, Emeritus Professor and Head, Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his room at Trinity College, 12 July 2000. Interview at Trinity College, 12 April 2002.**

Ikuko Eguchi Yairi, Professor, Department of Information and Communication Science, Sophia University Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan. Interview in Tokyo, 16 October 2009.**

Isabelle Dusanter, Research Director at INSERM. Interview at lunch 27 March 2000.**

Ivan Svetlik, Vice Rektor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Multiple interviews in Ljubljana, May and June, 2007.**

Jack Morrell, Emeritus Reader, Bradford University, UK. Interview at his home, 12 June 1999.**

James Jackson, Professor of Active Tectonics, University of Cambridge. Interview at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 25 May 2007.**

Jean Bernard, Former Professor of Medicine, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France. Interview in his apartment 17 April 1998.**

Jenny Beckman, Fellow at Swedish Collegium of Advanced Studies (SCASSS) (Uppsala), Interview at Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, 26 September 2002.**

Jens Alber, Professor of Administrative Sciences, Konstanz University, Germany. Interviews 11 October 1994, 23 November 1994; Professor of Sociology, Free University, Berlin. Interview in Berlin 14 January 2011.**

Jeremy Fairbrother, Senior Bursar, Trinity College, Cambridge. Interview in his office, 20 March 2002.**

Jim Smith, Director Wellcome/CRUK Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology and Professor of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 10 April 2002.**

John A. Leake, President St. John’s College (Cambridge) and former Senior Lecturer, Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge. Multiple interviews at St. John’s College. Lent Term 2006.**

John Child, Professor of Judge School of Management, University of Cambridge. Interview in Stresa, Italy, 11 September 1997.**

John Gray, Professor of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office. 8 June 1999.**

John S. McCaskill, John McCaskill, Professor of Theoretical Biochemistry at the Friedrich-Schiller-University in Jena, Germany. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 8 October 2007.**

John Thoday, Emeritus Professor of Genetics, University of Cambridge. Interview at Emmanuel College, 11 June 1999.**

John Werren, Professor, Department of Biology, University of Rochester, and Max-Planck-Institut für Verhaltensphysiologie, Seewiesen, Germany, Interview in Bonn, Germany, 9 July 1996.**

Jurgen Renn, Director of Max-Planck Institute for the History of Science; Professor Free University, Berlin, Germany. Interview in Berlin 10 January 2011.**

Jutta Allmendinger, Professor of Sociology, University of Munich. Interview in her office 16 June 1998.**

Kai L. Simons, Geschäftsführender Direktor am Max-Planck-Institute für molekulare Zellbiologie und Genetik. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002.**

Karl Ulrich Mayer, Director, Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung, Berlin. Interviews in his office, 5 July 1996, and at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002.**

Kazutoshi Mori, Professor, Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Japan. Interview in his office at Kyoto University, 9 November 2009.**

Klaus Weber, Professor and Director of Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. Interview 14 April 2004 in his office.**

Koichiro Tsunewaki, Retired Professor, Kyoto University Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto, Japan, and past president of Fukui Prefectural University, Japan. Interview in Tokyo, 26 October 2009.**

L. Madadevan, Professor of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 24 January 2002.**

Lars Magnusson, Professor and Chair of Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Interview in his office 20 October 2011.**

Lord Rees of Ludlow (Martin Rees), President of the Royal Society of London, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, Astronomer Royal and Royal Society Research Professor at University of Cambridge. Interview at Master’s Lodge, Trinity College, 14 April 2006. Professor of Institute of Astronomy, Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, Member Board of Trustees Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. Interview at Trinity College, 30 March 2002.**

Malcolm Burrows, Professor and Head of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 22 April 2002.**

Malcolm Perry, Lecturer in Mathematics, University of Cambridge and Fellow at Trinity College. Interviews at Trinity College, 15 March 2002.**

Margaret Chadwick (Lady), Numerous interviews at Rockefeller Foundation Study Center, Bellagio, Italy, June 1994.**

Marnie Hodgkin (Lady). Widow of Sir Alan Hodgkin, Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, and daughter of Professor Peyton Rous, Rockefeller Institute. Interview at her home, 18 March 2002.**

Martin Johnson, Professor of Anatomy and former Head of Department, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 17 October 2002.**

Martin Roth (Sir), Professor of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 31 January 2002.**

Mary Osborn, Research Group Leader at Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry and Professor of Medicine, University of Gőttingen. Interviews at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 19 April 2002 and in her office at Max Planck Institute, 15 April 2004.**

Masayuki Abe, Professor, Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University 3 November 2009.**

Maurice Hofnung, Director, Unité de programmation moléculaire et toxicologie génétique, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in his office 14 March 2000, 18 April 2000.**

Maxime Seligman, former director of Unité d’Immunologie et Immunopathologie. Interview in his office at Hôpital Saint-Louis 21 April 2000, 30 May 2000.**

Michael Ashburner, Professor of Genetics, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office 9 June 1999.**

Michael Ferguson-Smith, Emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office at Clinical School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, 16 October 2002.‡

Michael Frances Atiyah (Sir), Former Director Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences and former Master, Trinity College (Cambridge). Interview at Trinity College 11 February 2002.**

Michael McCrum, former Vice-Chancellor, University of Cambridge. Interview in his home, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 10 June 1999.**

Michael Smith, Former Director of Biotechnology Laboratory and Professor, University of British Columbia (Vancouver). Interview in his office 5 February 1998.**

Michel Barne, Former Director of Unité de virologie et vaccins viraux at Institut Pasteur. Interview in his apartment 16 March 2000.**

Michel Boiron, Former Professor of Medicine and Former Director, Unité de virologie des leucémies, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France. Interviews in his office 17 June 1997 and 12 April 1998.**

Michel Bornens, Director Laboratory de Cells, Unité mixe de recherche, compartimentation et dynamique cellulaire in Curie Institut, Paris. Interview in his office 27 May 2000.**

Nancy Lane, Research Fellow, Department of Zoology; Project Director, Women in Science, Engineering, and Technology Initiative, University of Cambridge. Interview in Master’s Lodge, St. John’s College, 31 January 2006.

Nick McCave, Woodwardian Professor of Geology, University of Cambridge. Multiple interviews at St. John’s College. Lent Term 2006.**

Nico Stehr, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, University of Alberta and Karl Mannheim Chair for Cultural Studies, Zeppelin University, Lake Constance, Germany. Interview 20 March 2004, 15 April 2005.**

Norman G. Heatley, Biochemist and pathologist (retired) at Oxford University. Interviews at St. John’s College, University of Cambridge, 14 March 1997; interview at his home 13 April 1997.**

Odile Croissant, maître de recherche, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in conference room 18 April 2000.**

Ola Svenson, Professor of Psychology, University of Stockholm. Interview in his office at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study, 14 October 1998.**

Olle Persson, Professor of Sociology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Interviews in Sweden 9 September 2010, 22 August 2011.**

Olof Ljungström, Administrative Officer for Medicine and Biology, Karolinska Institute. Interview in Sweden 29 August 2010.**

P. (Paley) Johnson, Emeritus, Department of Colloid Science and Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge. Interviews at Trinity College, 18 March 2002.**

Partha S. Dasgupta, Frank Ramsey Professor of Economics, University of Cambridge. Multiple interviews at St. John’s College (Cambridge). Lent Term 2006.**

Patrice Courvalin, Director of Unité des antibactériens at Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in his office 25 February 1998.**

Patrick Kenis, Professor of Administrative Science, Konstanz University (Germany), 24 November 1994.**

Paul Bernard, Professor of Sociology, University of Montreal. Interview in Montreal, Canada at residence of Professor Arnaud Sales, 2 October 2005.**

Peter Gruss, Director of Max Planck Association. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 18 April 2002, Interview in Berlin 11 January 2011.**

Peter McNaughton, Sheild Professor of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 17 October 2002.**

Peter Schuster, Professor, Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Vienna, and President of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Interview in Almen, The Netherlands, 9 October 2007.**

Peter Swinnerton-Dyer (Sir), Former head University Grants Council. Interview at Trinity College, Cambridge, 14 March, 16 March 2002.**

Peter Weingart, Professor of Sociology, University of Bielefeld, Germany. Interview 19 January 1995.**

Philippe Faucher, Professor and Chairperson, Department of Political Science, University of Montreal. Interview in Montreal, Canada at residence of Professor Arnaud Sales 2 October 2005.**

Philippe Lazar, Former Director of INSERM, Paris, France in his office at ORSTOM. Interview in his office 30 March 2000.**

Piero Migliorato, Professor of Physical Electronics, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge and Fellow, Trinity College. Interview at Trinity College, 24 January 2002.**

Pierre Devillers, Former Member of the Director of INSERM, Institut Curie, Paris, France. Interview in his office 15 May 2000.**

Pierre Meystre, Professor, Max-Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany; Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Interview in Bonn, Germany, 8 July 1996.**

Piotr Slonimski, Former Director Labatorie de Génétique physiologique, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Interview in his office 15 June 2000.**

Ralf Tatzel, Assistant to Board of Directors, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried (Munich), Germany. Interview at Martinsried, 10 May 2004.**

Reinhard Jahn, Professor and Director of Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Interview in his office 14 April 2004.**

Renate Mayntz, Director Emeritus, Max-Planck-Institute für Gesellschaftsforschung. Interview in Kőln, Germany. Interviews 25 March 2004, 19 April 2004.**

Ricard V. Solé, Physicist and Biologist, Research Professor at Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. Interviews in Almen, The Netherlands, 8 and 9 October, 2007.**

Richard Jackson, Professor of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge. Interview at Department of Biochemistry, 12 April 2002.**

Richard John Brook (Sir), Director of the Leverhulme Trust, London. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, 18 April 2002.**

Richard Keynes, Emeritus Professor and Head of Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his home, 19 March 2002. Second interview by telephone, 28 March 2002.**

Richard Perham, Professor of Biochemistry (2002) and Master of St. John’s College (2006), University of Cambridge. Interview at St. John’s College, Cambridge, 22 March 2002; Interview in Master’s Lodge, 15 March 2006.**

Rikard Stankiewicz, Professor of Science and Technology Governance at the European University Institute in Florence. Interview in his office, 31 March 2005.**

Robert A. Hinde, formerly Master St. John’s College (Cambridge) and Emeritus Royal Society Research Professor of Zoology, University of Cambridge. Interview at St. John’s College, Cambridge, 9 February 2006.**

Roberto Franzosi, Fellow of Trinity College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Interview at his home 12 April 1997.**

Robin Irving, Royal Society Professor, Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 18 October 2002.‡

Robin W. Carrell, Professor of Haematology, University of Cambridge. Interviews at Trinity College, 24 January, 26 January, 29 January, 2002

Roger F. Griffin, Emeritus Professor of Observational Astronomy, University of Cambridge. Interviews at St. John’s College (Cambridge), 13 and 16 April 2006.**

Roger Keynes, Lecturer, Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge. Interview at Trinity College, 18 October 2002.‡

Roger Krohn, Professor Emeritus of Sociology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Interview in Montreal, 2 October 2005.**

Rolf Torstendahl, Professor of History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Interview in Uppsala 30 August 2010.**

Ron Laskey, Professor of Zoology, Wellcome CRC Institute, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 8 June 1999.**

Seizo Morita, Professor in the Department of Quantum Electronic Device Engineering, Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 3 November 2009.**

Sheila McMichael (Lady) (Dr. Sheila Howarth), former Executive Office of Medical Research Council, Great Britain. Interview at Royal Society of Medicine (London) 9 May 1997.**

Sherif Barakat, Vice-president, National Research Council of Canada. Interview in Ottawa, Canada 4 October 2005.**

Shigetada Nakanishi, Professor, Kyoto University Medical School, Kyoto, Japan. Interview in his office in Kyoto, 30 October 1997. Director, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Osaka, Japan. Interview in his office in Osaka, 5 November 2009.**

Soraya de Chadarevian, Department of Philosophy and History of Science, University of Cambridge, 4 November 1998, 22 March 2002.**

Stephen G. Fleet, Emeritus Registrary of the University of Cambridge and Master of Downing College. Interview at Downing College, 12 April 2002.**

Stratis Avrameas, Former Director, Unité d’Immunocytochimie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. Interview in his office 12 May 2000.**

Sukekatsu Ushioda, President of the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), Tsukuba City, Japan. Interview in his office in Tsukuba City, 27 November 2009.**

Sven Baszio, Program Director Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Interview in Bonn, 29 March 2004.**

Tadatsugu Taniguchi, Professor and head of the Immunology Department of the Medical School of the University of Tokyo, Japan. Interview at the University of Tokyo, 30 October 2009.**

Tasuku Honjo, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy (Cabinet Office), Tokyo, Japan. Interview in his Tokyo office, 18 November 2009.**

Tom Blundell, Professor and Head of Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 19 March 2002.**

Tom Burns, Professor of Sociology, Uppsala University; Visiting Scholar, Lisbon University. Interview in Uppsala 6 September 2010, 19 October 2011.**

Tony Minson, Professor of Pathology (Virology) and Chair, School of Biological Sciences (SBS), University of Cambridge. Interview in his SBS office, 17 October 2002.‡

Toshiaki Sunazuka, Professor, Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences and Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan. Interview in Tokyo, 22 October 2009.**

Trevor Lamb, Professor of Physiology, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 12 July 2000.**

Ulrich Wengenroth, Professor, Munich Technical University. Interview in Munich, 9 May 2004. Head of the Program in History of Technology, Professor, Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany. Interview in his office 21 January 2011.**

Ute Deichmann, Geneticist and Historian of Science, Institute of Genetics, University of Kőln and Ben Gurion University, Israel. Interview in Kőln, 17 April 2004.**

W. Bachtold, President of Research Council, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) (Switzerland). Interview in his office 12 December 1994.**

Walter Kröll, Vorsitzender der Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria. 18 April 2002.**

Wilhelm Krull, General Secretary of the Volkswagen Foundation. Interview at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria. 19 August 2002.**

William Harris, Professor of Anatomy, University of Cambridge. Interview in his office, 16 October 2002.

William J. Butterfield (Baron Butterfield), former Vice-Chancellor University of Cambridge. Interview in his home, 12 July 2000.**

Wolfgang Baumeister, Professor and Director of Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried (Munich), Germany. Interview at Martinsried, 10 May 2004.**

Yasushi Fujio, Professor in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and a member of the Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 4 November 2009.**

Yoshiaki Sugimoto, Professor in the Department of Quantum Electronic Device Engineering, Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan. Interview in his office at Osaka University, 3 November 2009.**

Yoshiki Hotta, Director General of National Institute of Genetics. Interview in his office in Mishima, Japan. 27 October 1997. President of the Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS), Tokyo, Japan. Interview in his Tokyo office, 29 October 2009.**

Yoshiro Shimura. President of the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), Tokyo, Japan. Interview in his Tokyo office, 2 December 2009.**

Yoshito Kaziro, Director, the Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Kyoto University, and Professor, Kyoto University, Japan. Interview by telephone from Tokyo, 4 December 2009.**