(3) What problems did the Rump Parliament and Oliver Cromwell face in the years between 1649 and 1660, how did they attempt to overcome them, and how successful were they?

Oliver Cromwell and the Rump Parliament faced many challenges in the years of the Republic, 1649-1660. From war and rebellion to religious threats and collapse, the Republic had many problems.

In late 1648 and early 1649 the largest problem for Cromwell was the fact that Charles I existed. Cromwell purged parliament of all opposition to himself and Charles I was executed in January 1649. Now the government was left in the control of the Rump Parliament (without royal supporters) and Oliver Cromwell.

The first major problem for the Rump was rebellion. Ireland had been in rebellion since 1641 and Parliament sent Cromwell with 12,000 experienced troops to end it. He ended the rebellion by showing no mercy to the Irish, he massacred two fortified cities before the Irish surrendered. After the Irish threat was neutralized, the Scottish rebellion began. The Scots were angered by the execution of Charles I and Charles II had landed in Scotland. The Scots proclaimed Charles king of Scotland and England, which angered the Rump and Cromwell was sent to Scotland to stop Charles II. The English and Scottish met at several battles, including Dunbar where Cromwell was almost defeated, and the battle of Worcester, where Charles was ultimately defeated and fled to France.

Although the Scots had been defeated, the Presbyterian religion continued. Parliament and Cromwell persecuted the Presbyterians, along with Catholics who still existed in England and Quakers and Puritains [sic]. Cromwell accepted most Quakers, except for the militant and outspoken ones, whom he eliminated. The Puritains [sic] also composed a concieveable [sic] threat. Many Puritains [sic] were immigrating [sic] to America to have religious freedom. Many religious leaders were persecuted by Parliament. The religious persecution was only in the early stages of the Republic. Cromwell himself wanted religious tolerance and stability.

Cromwell soon became sole leader of the Model Army created to defeat Charles I in the 1640s. When the Rump Parliament was not doing what Cromwell wanted them to do, he made a simple choice - dissolve Parliament. Cromwell dissolved the Rump in 1653 and assumed power for himself. He created 140 advisors to help him in place of Parliament. The Army now controlled the government with Cromwell at the top as Lord Protector.

Cromwell created some Puritainical [sic] laws, but did basically end religious persecution for Protestants; Catholic persecution continued on and off. He also allowed Jews to come to England because he believed in the Fifth Monarchist concept of the world ending and the Jews being converted to Christianity. By the late 1650s, England had essentially the same organization of government as before the Civil War. They had a king of sorts (Cromwell), Commons and an upper house (Lords).

In 1658, Oliver Cromwell died and his son, Richard attempted to continue as Lord Protector. Richard had none of the traits his father had and the military took control of the government. The Model Army however was unstable and falling apart. George Monck (whom Cromwell had left in Scotland) brought an army from Scotland and took control of London. Monck decided that the best solution to the government problems was to bring back the monarchy and Charles II.

Oliver Cromwell and the Rump were successful in overcoming these various problems. Cromwell defeated the Irish and Scottish rebellions easily. He created a fairly stable religious stability after the Rump was dissolved. When the Rump stopped working for him, he dissolved it. A major reason that the Republic government did not coninue beyond 1660 was that Oliver Cromwell died and no one with his abilities was there to take his place. Cromwell was able to do what no one before or since had done, eliminate a king and create a government that he wanted, essentially from scratch.

This essay earned an AB grade.
It showed a fair knowledge of course material and was reasonably well arranged and expressed.
Unfortunately, some statements were inaccurate and others garbled.
Moreover, the essay often descended to reciting a list of events without making clear their relevance to the question in hand. (For example, the readmission of the Jews to England is an interesting fact, but its relevance to the problems of the Rump and Cromwell was not established)

NB Graders are not impressed, when a student still cannot spell 'Puritans' correctly by the final exam!